The governments of the Republic of Benin and the Republic of Togo have agreed with IFAD to establish a regional framework for reflection aimed at boosting agricultural production by increasing agricultural trade between the two countries. The aim is to intensify intra-community trade within ECOWAS, in accordance with the long-term vision of an African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).
The Regional Programme for the Integration of Agricultural Markets (RPIAM) responds to requests from the governments of Benin and Togo for a regional agricultural market integration program in the spirit of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) at the sub-regional and continental levels. Both countries emphasize the need for a more integrated agricultural trade area, particularly to help reinforce their position in ECOWAS’ key trade corridors and in accordance with the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and NEPAD's sectoral strategy.
The design of PRIMA was based on (i) lessons learned from the implementation of IFAD programs in Benin and Togo; (ii) the political priorities and development strategies of the two countries; (iii) the United Nations' SDGs and IFAD's strategic and political priorities; (iv) the African Union's 2063 Agenda; and (v) information exchanges with other technical and financial partners.
PRIMA was approved by IFAD's Executive Board in December 2020.
Brief presentation of the Programme
The overall objective of RPIAM is to stimulate regional agricultural trade in order to create jobs for women and younth, increase incomes, and improve food security and nutrition for the rural poor.
The development objective is to support the sustainable transformation of family farming in Benin and Togo by improving the performance of sub-regional commercial centers and cross-border transport corridors while promoting rural entrepreneurship for youth and women, and fully integrating smallholders into national and sub-regional markets.
PRIMA will be implemented through two national projects (RPIAM-Benin and RPIAM-Togo) over a period of 6 years (from 2022 to 2028), with a particular focus on cross-border trade corridors common to the two countries and to the other ECOWAS countries. The regional dimension of RPIAM will be coordinated by a Regional Technical Assistance Unit (RTAU) housed within the Regional Agency for Agriculture and Food (RAAF) based in Lomé, Togo. It will mainly support regional coordination actions, monitoring-evaluation, and knowledge management, market integration, political dialogue, and the implementation of civic engagement.
The program has three technical components and a fourth component for coordination and fiduciary management. The technical components are: i) Market integration and rural entrepreneurship; ii) Transformation of family farming adapted to climate change; iii) Policy dialogue and citizen engagement.
Component 1: Market Integration and Rural Entrepreneurship
Component 1 will support activities aimed at improving the performance of existing logistics and marketing infrastructure that facilitates the flow of agricultural products in sub-regional and cross-border trade corridors by (i) opening up rehabilitated production areas to regional agricultural markets with consistent and permanent accessibility (rural roads), (ii) rehabilitating and improving the quality of existing semi-wholesale markets, (iii) ensuring sustainable management and maintenance of public economic infrastructure, (iv) strengthening the entrepreneurial capacities of young people, women and POs involved in this regional initiative.
Component 2 : Transformation of family farming adapted to climate change
Component 2 is made up of the following three sub-components: (i) Development of sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture; (ii) Sustainable management of small-scale irrigation; (iii) Improvement of family nutritional security and support for the integration of women. The potential areas of intervention will be specified during the formulation mission. This component will develop synergy and complementarity with IFAD's current project portfolio by focusing on agro-entrepreneurship.
Component 3 : Policy dialogue and civic engagement
This component aims to strengthen regional economic integration, including the participation of farmers' organizations in ECOWAS decision-making bodies and other regional mechanisms for steering agricultural market strategies at the cross-border level. The program will help to alleviate trade policy constraints related to interregional trade, particularly non-customs policies. This approach will help to identify regulatory gaps (standards, quality of agricultural products).
The objective of this component is to build the capacity of PRIMA's target groups and key partners at all levels to advocate for public policies that are more conducive to market integration. One set of activities will be linked to data collection, studies and analysis to define a policy dialogue agenda. The other will focus on building the capacity of stakeholders to better monitor and evaluate the implementation of PRIMA with regular to proposals on improvements and lessons learned to be integrated into the political dialogue (citizen engagement).
Strategic positioning from a commercial point of view in the ECOWAS region
Benin and Togo are both members of ECOWAS, and are located at the neuralgic crossroads between the major economies of the region: Nigeria on to the east, Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire on the west, and are strategically positioned between the Gulf of Guinea maritime opening (ports of Lomé/Cotonou) and the landlocked Sahel countries to take advantage of these growing markets. At the ECOWAS level, according to the available statistics, intra-regional trade represent between 8% and 13% of all ECOWAS trade. For Benin and Togo, on average over the periods of 2013 to 2017, the two countries contributed 2% and 1.6% respectively to ECOWAS trade with its third countries. Also, despite the Community texts and standards governing this trade, it still seems to be dominated by the informal sector and goes quite beyond statistical and economic analysis.
The advantage for PRIMA to work on the development of regional corridors is to boost this regional trade, which is still in its infancy, by means of modern and appropriate infrastructure, and a sustainable increase in production in the local basins and guaranteeing a better domestic market supplies of Benin and Togo. Based on the field data generated by the programme, PRIMA will enable economic players (PO) and political players (governments, RAAF, etc.) to influence policies to improve regional integration.
The Togo-Benin transport corridors are essential for regional trade with the Sahel and the three largest economies in West Africa. Nigeria, the main producer, and consumer in the area, along with Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire, accounts for the largest share of agricultural trade in West Africa. As previously mentioned, within the West African regional trade and transport network, Togo and Benin are at the heart of the trans-African motorway network16 , particularly within the East-West corridor, Dakar-Bamako-Ouagadougou-Niamey-Ndjamena, and the coastal corridor Dakar-Accra-Lomé-Cotonou-Lagos. Although not being properly documented, trade between countries in the region has reportedly increased in recent years. With an average commercial value of more than 200 billion CFA francs a year ($350 million a year), livestock is the leading regional agro-pastoral trade. Benin and Togo are therfore strategically positioned in geographic terms to take advantage of these growing markets in Benin and Togo, the three main North-South sub-corridors (linking the seaports of Lomé and Cotonou to landlocked Sahelian countries such as Burkina Faso and Niger) are as follows: i) Cotonou-Ouagadougou corridor via Djougou/Kassaoua, ii) Cotonou-Malanville- Niamey corridor via Parakou; and iii) Lomé-Ouagadougou corridor via Anié-Kara-Dapaong. In addition to these three corridors, five other west-east cross-border corridors complete this network as the main crossroads between Ghana/Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria: (i) Notsè (Togo)-Dogbo and Bohicon (Benin), an important crossroads to Nigeria; (ii) Anié (Togo)-Doumè (Benin), and connection between Ghana and Nigeria; (iii) Kaboli (Togo)-Glazoué (Benin); (iv) Ketao (Togo)-Kassoua (Benin); and finally (v) Gando (Togo)-Tapoka and Kobli (Benin).
The Program will support the integration of more efficient and effective cross-border territorial markets within regional trade corridors leading to a structural transformation of market-oriented family farming to ensure better income for 90,000 vulnerable rural households (516,000 people). Regional trade integration will be achieved through significant investments in the development of a coherent network of economic infrastructure including the rehabilitation and sustainable management of nine cross-border semi-wholesale markets and 18 territorial collection centers and 500 km of rural roads. The beneficiaries will be involved in the management and maintenance. The opening up of the production basins and the growing demand resulting from this regional network of rehabilitated markets will be met by a 30% increase in production (rice, market gardening, associated crops) which will be made possible by the development of climate-resilient agriculture on 16,000 ha of sub-watershed land surrounding 4,000 ha of plains and lowlands, the upgrading of 75 former Planned Agricultural Development Zone (PADZ) and the establishment of 25 new PADZ. It will also facilitate the cross-border natural resources management.
Effective policy dialogue, enhanced timely and inclusive citizen feedback mechanisms, will enable PRIMA to be more strategic, systemic and inclusive. It will do this by (i) filling gaps in existing regional and national policies (i.e., removing physical and non-physical barriers to effective cross-border agricultural trade between the two countries); and (ii) expanding access to other major regional and intra-regional markets for the benefit of small and vulnerable producers, especially youth and women.
The objectives of the study
The overall objective of this study is to establish the current state of cross-border trade in agricultural products between Benin and Togo. An in-depth analysis of all the existing barriers and strengths will be accompanied by proposals for priority actions to help governments facilitate trade transactions between the two countries in order to improve the resilience of populations and food systems. Emphasis will be placed on the areas linking the main markets identified in the intervention corridors areas between Benin and Togo.
Specifically,the aim is to :
- Draw up an inventory of flows and analyse cross-border flows of agricultural products between Benin and Togo, by highlighting the level of transactions and changes over the last five years, the geographical areas where products are concentrated and the barriers to trade between the two countries. This analysis will also look at identifying the groups of players involved in this trade, their intervention strategies on domestic markets, the constraints experienced and the nature of the relationships they have with each other, in particular the terms of supply, negotiation and payment arrangements.
- provide the value of the main monitoring indicators as part of the implementation of systems for monitoring cross-border flows of agroforestry products linking the main markets identified around the intervention corridors between Benin and Togo. These indicators should include: i) the volumes and value of cross-border flows, ii) the number of checkpoints on the main routes, iii) the charges levied, iv) border crossing times, and v) travel times and the level of viability of cross-border tracks, etc.
A description of these indicators is given in the following table:
Table 1 : Indicators of cross-border flows
Volume and value of cross-border flows
In volume terms, these are the physical quantities of agroforestry products traded, and in value terms, the monetary equivalent of these quantities.
In terms of volume, this is the average monthly trading volume in physical units, derived from the average daily trading volume by multiplying by 30.
Volume: In physical units according to each product
The number of checkpoints on the main routes
The concept of JC (Juxtaposed Checkpoint) refers to the legal and institutional framework, infrastructure and related
Counting of JC on the main roads
Amount of charges levied
Disaggregate charges by control level of inspection and can then be aggregated.
in CFA francs
It’s about the time taken to carry out all checks.
Disaggregate time by levels of inspection and then aggregate it
Average time travelling between country of departure and country of arrival
Apply simple Difference using the carrier’s dashboards and notebooks.
Level of viability of cross-border tracks
On the basis of the following (non-exhaustive) indicators, it will be a question of knowing the viability of roads: potholes, crumbling, road width of carriageway, speed, etc
Suggest a qualitative assessment scale
- take stock of the situation and the level of implementation of national measures through an analysis of national policies (regulations, quality standards for agricultural products, etc.) in connection with the cross-border trade in general and affecting the agricultural and agri-food sector between the two countries and the potential limitations ;
- identify the main players (from the public and private sectors) and their socio-professional organisations involved in agricultural products trade, and the relationships between them.
- identify actions to be implemented and propose a priority action plan to the States in order to improve cross-border flows and trade.
- Identify the major circuits and the trade flows they drain. This analysis will address the identification of the groups of players involved in this trade, their intervention strategies in the domestic markets, the constraints encountered, the socio-economic impact of these constraints on the different groups of players, the strategies developed to minimise the impact, and the nature of the relationships they have with each other, particularly the modalities of supply, negotiation, and payment arrangements.
Expected results of the study
At the end of the study, the following results are expected:
R1: An in-depth analysis of cross-border trade flows of agricultural products is being carried out between Togo and Benin. This analysis will be sufficiently detailed and precise to provide useful information and data for a better understanding of issues related to trade flows and agricultural products, the stakeholders involved and any constraints to be removed.
R2: An exhaustive list of indicators (and their target values) for monitoring cross-border flows of agroforestry products is produced;
R3: an inventory of national measures to promote cross-border trade and the state of implementation of these measures is documented. In addition to this inventory, the consultant is expected to analyse the relevance of such measures.
R4: Identification sheets of the actors involved in the exchanges and the relationships between them (categorised by product) are produced.
R5: A priority action plan is proposed to State to improve cross-border flows and trade
At the end of the service provided, six deliverables are expected to be:
- Deliverable 1: A conceptual note (scoping note) for the assignment, including the methodological approaches, the various stages and the resource persons and stakeholders to be contacted by the consultant.
- Deliverable 2: An inception report outlining the scope of the assignment, the preliminary activities carried out and the arrangements made for the mission (mobilisation of the necessary experts, etc.)
- Deliverable 3: A provisional version of the report on the basic situation of the marketing circuit and cross-border flows of agricultural products.
- Deliverable 4: On the basis of the circuits and actors identified, a proposal for a monitoring mechanism in terms of future data collection methodology on flows and road-related harassment, flow collection/capture points as well as data collection sheets on cross-border flows of agro-sylvo-pastoral and fishery products readily usable.
- Deliverable 5: A list of indicators (and target values) for monitoring cross-border flows of agroforestry products is produced in Excel format (Table 1 of the TR (Terms of Reference) and List of indicators of the project's logical framework).
- Deliverable 6: Identification sheets of the actors involved in the exchanges and the relationships between them (categorised by product).
- Deliverable 7: Two notes to decision-makers based on the analysis of barriers and the proposed priority action plan.
- Deliverable 8: A final report on the baseline study
Methodology for carrying out the study.
The study will be conducted in Togo and Benin. The recommended sequence for the study is as follows:
(i) a bibliographical review to take stock of the work done on agricultural products in cross-border trade and to highlight the aspects on which new avenues of research and collection of supplementary information are needed.
(ii) Establishment of a data collection system in each country. Data will be collected in the target countries through individual interviews and focus groups. To this end, the consultant will submit, as part of its technical offer, an interview guide and a data analysis grid showing how the information collected will be used to produce a report consistent with the objectives of the study.
(iii) Analysis of the data collected and drafting of the provisional report of the study.
(iv) Presentation and drafting of the final report by incorporating corrections and responses to comments
The Principal Consultant must be a specialist in cross-border markets and flows. He/she must have a university degree of at least BAC+5 in agronomy, agro-economics, economics, or any other relevant diploma.
In terms of experience, he must:
- have at least ten years' general experience in promoting agricultural sectors.
- have carried out at least one similar consultation (basic study on regional or international trade in an agricultural or livestock sector, analysis of an agro-pastoral export sector);
- have at least two relevant references that demonstrate experience of working on regional or international trade in livestock or agropastoral products.
- have at least three relevant references demonstrating a good knowledge of the agricultural sector in the countries concerned,
- have a consulting experience with international organizations.
- Experience of developing tools for data collection, data analysis and interpretation.
- Fluent in one of the official ECOWAS languages: English, French or Portuguese,
A working knowledge of another language would be an additional asset.
The Lead Consultant will be assisted by an assistant’s profil who is specialist in road governance in road governance who holds a university diploma of at least BAC+5 in agronomy, agro-economics, economics or any other relevant degree.
Assistants must have at least two years of experience in participation in the achievement of similar studies.
Tasks of the Principal Consultant
The Principal Consultant will be responsible for the complete conduct of the study, and will perfom the following main tasks:
- The Consultant will mobilise a team consisting of i) himself, the lead consultant, assisted by an associate consultant. The lead consultant will be responsible for the preparation, coordination and execution of the study and the production of the various reports; and ii) two national assistants responsible for the collection and preliminary data exploitation in the field and who will act as contacts with local stakeholders.
- Produce the scoping note of the study, together with a timeline of the differents activities contributing to the study.
- Effective coordination of the activities of the assistants on the basis of validated planning with the latter and validate their analysis reports.
- Ensure interaction with the various key parties (individuals, institutions, agencies, ministries) from whom information and data collection is required in order to conduct the study.
- develop the various data collection tools for the study.
- Guarantee the processing of data collected and make it useful for analysis.
- quality review of the project's logical framework indicators and supplement the reference indicators based on the results of the study.
- Ensure the effective analysis of data for usable purposes and formulate relevant recommandations to decision-makers.
- Present during the milestone meeting (to be defined with RAAF) a progress report on the activities planned for the studies.
- Produce the reports and the differents deliverables mentioned in point 5.
- Lead the final report validation workshop.
The Road Governance Specialist is expected to carry out the following tasks:
- Carry out a documentary review of the application of national measures through an analysis of national policies (regulations, quality standards for agricultural products, etc.) relating to cross-border trade in general and affecting the agricultural and agri-food sector between Togo and Benin.
- Based on the the review, identify the constraints and impact generated for stakeholders
- Support the identification of the different actors involved, in order to facilitate data collection
Duration of the study
The assignment will cover a period of three months at the end of which the report will be validated and the final version, after incorporation of comments, will be sent to the RAAF. The working time, man/day for the Principal Consultant is 50. He will be able to leave for 20 days per country and 20 days for the complete drafting, synthesis, and validation.
Concerning the assistant, the working time man/days of the road governance specialist is 20 at a rate of 10 days per country, the quality review, and other activities of regional scope.
National consultants will be allocated a working time of 10 Hours/Day per consultant.
Eligibility and qualifications
The ECOWAS Commission, through the Regional Agriculture and Food Agency (RAAA), hereby invites individuals to express their interest in providing the required services by providing information demonstrating that they possess the necessary qualifications and relevant experience to carry out the assignment. The qualification and experience criteria are best described in the terms of reference.
The attention of interested individual consultants is particularly drawn to Article 117 of the revised ECOWAS Public Procurement Code ("Offences committed by candidates, tenderers and successful tenderers"), which provides information on corrupt or fraudulent practices in the competition or execution of a contract. In addition, please refer to the following specific information on conflicts of interest related to this assignment in accordance with Article 118 of the revised ECOWAS Public Procurement Code.
The application file consist of:
- A signed letter of interest.
- A recent and signed Curriculum Vitae detailing professional experience and similar assignment of each member of the consultant team;
- Technical document describing the methodology and the planning that is considered to conduct the study;
- Three professional references (first and last names, current position, position at the time of collaboration with the Consultant, e-mail and telephone contacts);
- Copy of the highest diploma of each member of the consultant team;
- Copies of work or service certificates listed in the curriculum vitae.
Submission of applications
- Deadline for receipt of applications: 02 November 2023 at 17:00 GMT.
- Submission links: applications must be submitted by download to the following address: Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/request/dEMLdnVH6ozjtxFTAkNo
- Application format: the application must be in the form of a single PDF file.
- The ARAA reserves the right not to consider applications that do not comply with the above conditions for submission.
A consultant will be selected according to the individual consultant selection method described in the ECOWAS "Procurement Regulations". An interview to assess knowledge, skills and abilities may be organised with the best candidates. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted. Where skills are equal, preference will be given to female candidates. The RAAA reserves the right not to follow up on this notice.
Request for further information
Interested consultants may obtain further information by writing to the following e-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org cc: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org with "SCI042- PRIMA- Consultant to carry out a baseline study on marketing channels " in the subject line.